The difference between pipes and tubes is simply in the way it is sized.PVC pipe for plumbing applications and galvanized steel pipe for instance, are measured in IPS (iron pipe size).Copper tube, CPVC, PeX and other tubing is measured nominally, which is basically an average diameter.These sizing schemes allow for universal adaptation of transitional fittings. For instance, 1/2" PeX tubing is the same size as 1/2" copper tubing.
1/2" PVC on the other hand is not the same size as 1/2" tubing, and therefore requires either a threaded male or female adapter to connect them.When used in agricultural irrigation, the singular form "pipe" is often used as a plural.7 Pipe is available in rigid "joints", which come in various lengths depending on the material. Tubing, in particular copper, comes in rigid hard tempered "joints" or soft tempered (annealed) rolls. PeX and CPVC tubing also comes in rigid "joints" or flexible rolls.The temper of the copper, that is whether it is a rigid "joint" or flexible roll, does not affect the sizing.7 The thicknesses of the water pipe and tube walls can vary.Pipe wall thickness is denoted by various schedules or for large bore polyethylene pipe in the UK by the Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR), defined as the ratio of the pipe diameter to its wall thickness. Pipe wall thickness increases with schedule, and is available in schedules 20, 40, 80, and higher in special cases.
The schedule is largely determined by the operating pressure of the system, with higher pressures commanding greater thickness.Copper tubing is available in four wall thicknesses: type DWV (thinnest wall; only allowed as drain pipe per UPC), type 'M' (thin; typically only allowed as drain pipe by IPC code), type 'L' (thicker, standard duty for water lines and water service), and type 'K' (thickest, typically used underground between the main and the meter).Because piping and tubing are commodities, having a greater wall thickness implies higher initial cost.
Thicker walled pipe generally implies greater durability and higher pressure tolerances.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe#Difference_between_pipes_and_tubes
This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality.
Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households.In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards. Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people.
Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself.What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine.Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft. Wooden pipes were used in London and elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries.The pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through.The multiple pipes were then sealed together with hot animal fat.They were often used in Montreal and Boston in the 1800s, and built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century.These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood.Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure.About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants. Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals (see galvanic cell).Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe
Plumbing performed in the course of putting the apartment blockLarge companies engaged in hydraulic performance of full-service plumbing.
They can be rented during the construction of the house.They also participate in the process of putting up apartment buildings and schools of all sizes.It seems that the least complicated plumbing services are performed in the course of construction of the house, because they are limited to the performance of domestic water supply and sewage, and in the case of apartment blocks need to make a detailed plan of such a network adequate to the number and position of the individual apartments. However, in the case of schools you need to equip the bathroom in the right amount of sinks, where you will be able to wash their hands after using the toilet. In schools, sports can also stand up showers..